For 200 years, potatoes have been called our second bread. Growing a rich harvest of healthy and large tubers is the main task of the gardener. Potatoes are rich in nutrients and very tasty. Unfortunately, this was appreciated not only by people. If you do not take action, numerous pests, parasitic fungi, viruses can leave you without a crop. In this article, we will talk about how to increase yields and prevent potato diseases.
Why is pre-treatment necessary?
Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. High-quality pre-sowing treatment of seed tubers allows you to destroy spores of parasitic fungi — phytophthora, scab, etc. Modern means allow you to protect potatoes from the Colorado potato beetle and wireworm throughout the growing season. But folk methods can bring considerable benefits without the use of chemicals.
What are the positive effects of the treatment?
- Protection against fungal, bacterial and viral infections, also against insect pests.
- Yield increase.
- Improving the presentation and keeping quality of tubers.
How to treat tubers from diseases?
Modern drugs have low toxicity and, after a single treatment of seed tubers, protect plants throughout the growing season. By the time of harvest, they break down into safe components. Before processing, the tubers are sorted out, rotten, damaged and non-standard are discarded. Selected tubers are sprayed or soaked in disinfectant solutions and growth stimulants. To avoid negative consequences, the preparation of solutions should be carried out strictly according to the instructions.
Preparations for the destruction of fungal and bacterial infections include:
- Phytosporin. A completely safe biological product based on a culture of bacteria with strong fungicidal and antimicrobial properties. The advantages of Fitosporin are that it can be used at all stages of plant development.
- Fitosporin-m. It is able not only to destroy pathogens, but also to accelerate plant growth and increase yields. The drug is available in powder, paste and liquid form. The main feature of the drug is safety for people, animals and beneficial insects. Dosage — 50 g per 2-3 liters of water. Treatments are carried out immediately before planting or in the evening to exclude exposure to direct sunlight on the solution.
- Prestige. Two-component preparation for pre-sowing treatment. Destroys insect pests during the growing season within 2 months after germination and protects against fungal diseases. Increases the resistance of plants to temperature changes and lack of moisture. It is very convenient for processing early varieties of potatoes.
- Maksim. An excellent remedy that protects potatoes from black leg, scab and various rot. The basis of the drug is a natural antibiotic. A solution is prepared at the rate of 4 ml of the product per 50-100 ml of water. The advantage of Maxim is that they can process potatoes before storage.
- Matador. Means for long-term protection against insect pests and fungal infections for the entire growing season. Effective against the Colorado potato beetle, wireworm, bear and scoop. The working solution is diluted according to the instructions. It is not allowed to use early potatoes on plantings.
- Copper vitriol. Used to treat seed potatoes against scab, late blight and other fungal infections. The use of copper sulphate increases the immunity of plants, promotes active growth and increases the yield of potatoes. The procedure is carried out 2-3 days before planting. The dosage of vitriol is 1 tsp per 3 liters of water. The solution can only be diluted in wooden or glass containers. Metal utensils must not be used. The solution is suitable for use within 10 hours after preparation. The tubers are immersed in it for a few minutes, then dried.
Biostimulants are used to increase immunity and accelerate growth processes. Under their influence, photosynthesis in the leaves is enhanced. This increases the yield and quality of tubers. Popular among gardeners and farmers such means:
- Baikal. Contains a complex of beneficial bacteria for soil and plants. It is used not only for pre-sowing treatments, but also for the preparation of liquid organic dressings. Means «Baikal» significantly increases soil fertility, accelerates the formation of tubers. To prepare the solution, use 25 drops of the drug per 1 liter of water. The seed material is immersed in the resulting liquid for 4 hours. Without drying, the tubers are immediately embedded in the soil. For greater effect, the treatment is repeated after germination. Do not use this drug simultaneously with fungicides.
- Succinic acid. Powerful natural growth stimulator. The tubers treated with these products develop a strong root system. Increases plant immunity to various diseases, resistance to fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Seed tubers are sprayed with a 0.01% solution of succinic acid, covered with a film and left for 2-3 hours, after which the tubers are ready for planting.
- Potassium humate. Product based on natural humic acids. Increases fertility and soil structure. Seed tubers are sprayed with a spray gun 2 times a few days before planting and dried.
In specialized stores, you can buy stimulants that promote accelerated germination of potato eyes.
- Poteitin. A complex of natural phytohormones in combination with succinic acid and trace elements. Promotes rapid germination of tubers. For 5-6 days, the emergence of seedlings is accelerated. The drug has a fungicidal effect, improves photosynthesis and plant resistance to adverse weather conditions and damage by insect pests. To spray 60 kg of potato tubers, it is enough to dilute one ampoule in 750 ml of water.
- Vympel-K. environmentally friendly product containing natural humic acids and succinic acid. Pre-sowing treatment of seed potatoes destroys spores of parasitic fungi on the surface of tubers — scab, late blight, rhizoctoniosis. Accelerates the awakening of potato eyes. Promotes adaptation of plants to adverse weather conditions, fluctuations in humidity and temperature. Increases productivity and a trade dress of tubers. Before planting, the tubers are sprayed with a 2-3% solution of this drug.
Folk remedies for pre-sowing processing of potatoes
Until recently, there were no factory preparations for processing planting material, and our grandparents used their own methods to prepare seed potatoes for planting.
- Garlic. Finely chop 1 kg of garlic and insist in 10 liters of water for 2 hours. Soak the tubers in the infusion for 2-3 hours and can be planted. Garlic destroys pathogens and serves as a source of trace elements during the germination of potatoes.
- wood ash solution. Dilute 1 kg of dry ash in 10 liters of water and soak the tubers in the resulting solution for half an hour.
- Dry wood ash. Wet tubers are rolled in ashes and planted immediately. Ash serves as food for plants and repels soil pests — wireworm and scoop.
- Tar soap. Cut 40 g of tar soap and dissolve it in 1 liter of warm water. Strain the solution and spray the tubers. The smell of tar repels wireworms and other pests.
The choice of pest and disease resistant varieties, combined with high-quality pre-sowing treatment, guarantees a high yield of potatoes.