This southern culture is quite finicky and often gives growers a lot of trouble. However, if the disease is recognized in time, it is quite possible to defeat it. Our experts will talk about the symptoms and treatments for some grape diseases.
The entire aerial part suffers from it, and especially the root collar. The first sign of the disease is swelling on the shoot. When the tumor grows, it breaks through the bark, and in the cold season it cracks. The growth can be painted black, brown or yellowish. Its development is stimulated by a frosty winter.
Treatment of bacterial cancer
If the vine has been sick for a long time, then it will not be possible to save it, but at the initial stage, treatment is effective. You need:
- treat bushes with Gamair, Extrasol, Phytoplasmin or Phytoflavin;
- remove growths all the time and fertilize the grapes with ashes.
If the graft does not touch the ground, you carefully cover the plants for the winter, you will prune in the spring, and not in the fall, then you will reduce the risk of developing bacterial cancer.
Infectious degeneration (short knot)
The disease has characteristic features:
- curves and short internodes;
- small foliage (rounded or too dissected);
- rapid development of stepchildren with slow growth of branches;
- shedding of color;
- half-empty bunches with small berries.
Short knot treatment
The disease is very dangerous and is not treated with modern means. The bushes only need to be uprooted, and the ground under them should be pickled with special fumigants. You should not plant grapes in this area in the future.
You can avoid infection if you weed the weeds in time, loosen the soil and remove fallen leaves. Moisten the bushes without overflowing.
Blackness appears under the bark of the branches, the leaves also cover black spots. Covering varieties suffer more than frost-resistant ones, since frosts are not terrible for the disease.
Choose folk or chemical preparations:
- weekly infusion of ash;
- 4-day infusion of hay with laundry soap;
- Ridomil Gold, Horus, colloidal and Bordeaux liquid (treat the aerial part), Planriz, Fitosporin (pickle the soil).
For prevention, burn all plant residues, and do not leave them in the compost pit, do not neglect pruning and dig up the stem circle well.
The disease is characterized by thin, ribbon-like branches and foliage that turns yellow in spring. It is caused by nematodes, although vaccination can also provoke it.
Folk remedies in this case will not help, you will need chemicals:
- iron sulfate (4%)
- Bordeaux liquid (5%)
To reduce the likelihood of disease, plant the vineyard in a drafty area, dig deep near the trunk, and do not leave fallen leaves and branches in the compost heap. When buying, choose resistant varieties.
The leaves begin to turn yellow in places, their color becomes mosaic.
Treatment of viral mosaic
Bushes that have been sick for a while cannot be saved, but you can try to cure recently diseased plants. For this:
- remove the top layer of earth and pickle it with trisodium phosphate;
- treat the bushes themselves with karbofos.
The best prevention is choosing resistant varieties. In addition, you need to fight insect pests, weed the vineyard and disinfect garden tools.
Rainy, cold September and August often lead to gray rot. In this case, you can lose from 35 to 100% of the crop. The main sign of rot is that the berries are covered with a grayish coating, on which black dots subsequently appear.
Gray mold treatment
From this disease, folk remedies and chemicals help well:
- fungicides Mikal, Antrokal, Topaz, Folpan;
- treatment with mustard or soda solution.
For the health of the vine, do not forget to pluck damaged fruits, loosen and weed the earth, and cut the vine regularly.
Oidium (powdery mildew)
A whitish coating on the greenery and tops of the shoots indicates infection with powdery mildew. On the plaque, dark spots later appear, which also appear on the shoots. The fruits crack, and the color and ovaries simply turn brown and fall off. Please note that in the heat of a heavily affected bush, the smell of rotten fish can be heard.
Treatment of oidium
If the disease is still at an early stage, then you can:
- spray the bushes with infusion of ash or manure;
- treat the vine with Horus, Skor, Strobi, Topaz, colloidal liquid or sulfur solution.
You should not thicken the plantings, but for prevention, feed the crop, burn fallen leaves and cut lashes.
Chocolate or purple spots appear on the foliage, which eventually turn into holes. The branches are bent, become brittle. The bushes themselves practically cease to develop and die after a few years.
The disease is treatable. To begin with, it is worth removing all the affected areas. Spray a healthy bush:
- fungicides Teldor or Switch;
- copper chloride;
Powder the bushes with sulfur from time to time and prevent the plantation from overgrowing.
The incubation period lasts from one to two weeks. After that, oily spots appear on the foliage. Over time, they turn brown, increase and reach a diameter of two to three centimeters. As soon as at night the temperature is set at + 13 ° C and above, a grayish cobweb coating will also appear on the lower part of the foliage. Greens, flowers and ovaries will begin to crumble.
The berries also suffer — gray spots appear on them, turning brown over time, and the fruits shrivel and crumble. Mildew is not dangerous for large mature berries, but, unfortunately, in frosts, the disease does not stop development, and its peak occurs in May-June.
Mildew is treated with chemistry and folk remedies:
- sprayed with a solution of potassium permanganate, treated with a weekly ash infusion, planted dill around the bushes;
- plants are treated with solutions of sulfur or lime, a mixture of Bordeaux and colloidal liquid, Strobi preparation, but not more than three times per season.
For the health of the bushes, the area in which they grow should be well ventilated, the vine should not lack minerals, and fallen leaves and cut shoots should be burned, and not left in the compost heap.