Autumn has finally come into its own, but this does not mean that gardeners and gardeners can relax. Work in the garden continues in October. The season must be completed in such a way as to collect and save everything grown and ripened, and then prepare the plants, buildings and the site as a whole for wintering and next year. And all this will have to be done in an extremely short time, until the rains start and real frosts begin.

Harvesting and preserving the grown

In October, some crops still continue to bear fruit. The harvest of pears and late apples is nearing completion. It’s time for numerous root crops. We dig horseradish and Jerusalem artichoke, sweet potato, daikon, carrots and beets, do not forget about parsley and celery root. It’s time to harvest leeks, greens sown in August, broccoli and cabbage of other varieties, as well as the last tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers and eggplants.

It is best to harvest on a warm, fine day, and there are very few such days left. However, you should not rush to harvest some fruits. For example, carrots and horseradish, if they are dug up with the onset of frost, will only become tastier. And part of the parsnip and Jerusalem artichoke can generally be left in the ground until spring. They will not disappear and will retain their freshness.

Gourmets specially leave Brussels sprouts until the first snow. So the heads of this plant will be even tastier. If there is a greenhouse with heating, cauliflower dug up with the root can be transplanted into it so that it completes the formation of its inflorescences.

October is a time not only to harvest, but also to preserve the harvest. Autumn coolness allows you to engage in all types of conservation, drying fruits and freezing. In addition to fermentation, salting and pickling, you can cook a variety of salads, sauces, lecho. Preparations for first courses, jams, jams, marmalades, compotes and marshmallows are popular.

Planting and sowing before winter

It is very convenient to plant and sow some plants in the fall for the following reasons:

  • in the spring it is difficult to choose the time for the implementation of everything planned;
  • harvest from winter plantings can be obtained earlier than usual;
  • winter crops better resist diseases and garden pests.

Before winter, you can plant winter garlic and onions, sow carrots, parsley, beets, dill, parsnips and sorrel. Although the result of this work in the garden in October can only be seen and appreciated in the spring, as a rule, it does not disappoint.

In early October, seedlings of most shrubs and trees can still be planted. Young plants planted in time will still have time to build up the root system and prepare for frost.

Autumn digging, fertilizing and watering plants

The end of October is the time to dig up the soil in the beds, aisles and trunk circles of trees and shrubs. As a result of such digging, adult garden pests and their larvae find themselves on the surface of the soil, lose their protection and can be destroyed by birds and frosts.

You can dig up dense soil with a sharp bayonet shovel, deepening by 15-20 cm. It is enough to loosen light soil with a rake. At the same time, earthen clods do not need to be broken, because in the spring they will be saturated with melt water and collapse on their own. Simultaneously with digging, if necessary, for example, deacidify the soil by adding chalk, lime or dolomite flour to it.

Digging is traditionally combined with feeding trees and shrubs. To do this, mineral fertilizers or organic matter are buried to a depth of 25-30 cm. Feeding on empty loosened beds is a good way to make life easier in the spring, when there will be a lot to do anyway. Before winter, mineral complexes, ash, green manure, peat and all kinds of decayed organic matter can be introduced into the soil.

The top dressing, dissolved and dispersed by spring, will make the soil completely ready to accept new plants.

Having worked hard in summer and autumn, trees and shrubs have consumed a lot of liquid and need good moisture before winter. Moisture-charging irrigation compensates for losses and protects the rhizomes of crops from frostbite, since the thermal conductivity of wet soil is higher than that of dry soil.

With proper watering, the soil gets wet by 1-1.5 meters. To do this, the plant is watered from a hose into the near-trunk circle or by sprinkling, spending from 40 to 70 liters of water per 1 sq. meter. In rainy autumn, prolonged precipitation may well become a full-fledged replacement for water-charging irrigation.

Autumn pruning of trees and shrubs

When trees and bushes are completely free of foliage, the ideal time comes for all types of pruning:

  • Sanitary. During its execution, all diseased, broken and weak branches are removed.
  • Thinning. Helps to get rid of duplicate branches, tops, shoots growing inside the crown and thickening it.
  • Formative. Needed to create a properly developing and easy-to-harvest plant.
  • Anti-aging. Prolongs the life of the plant, giving it new strength and improving its yield.

Simultaneously with pruning, you can prepare «sleeping» cuttings that will be grafted in the coming spring.

Autumn processing of the garden from diseases and pests

After leaf fall, a wonderful opportunity opens up to qualitatively treat the garden and vegetable garden with drugs from diseases and pests. Processing can be done with chemicals:

  • From fungal infections. A good effect is achieved by using a three percent Bordeaux mixture.
  • From spotting and scab. Not only plants, but also the soil is treated with a 5-7% solution of urea (urea).
  •  From insects. A wide range of insecticides are recommended.

To disinfect the beds, you can use not only chemical, but also biological preparations. For example, «Fitosporin», «Planzir», «Trichodermin», «Baikal», «Alirin-B», «Baktofit». The cultivation of the garden is combined with its digging.

Autumn protection of tree bark from insects practically does not differ from spring. You can clean the trunks of trees from damaged and dead bark, and then process the stems and the lower part of the skeletal branches with whitewash. To prepare whitewash for 10 liters of water, 1-2 kg of clay and up to 3 kg of slaked lime are used.

All of the above works are supplemented by the preparation for winter of greenhouses and other non-separable and unheated structures. All plant residues that have accumulated on the site must be sorted out: some should be taken out of the site, some should be sent to compost, the rest should be used as mulch. Do not forget to make a blank for future seedlings from soddy soil. But for these and other works, there may still be a brief warm period in early November.

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